National law

A bill has to undergo individual steps that have to be passed into law. This happens in the National Assemblies of most states. Below are the steps that a bill undergoes to become a fully fledged law.

Steps a bill undergoes to become a law

First reading

The first stage in this process is referred to as the first reading. The first reading is when the bill is first introduced to a legislature. The bill has to be assigned a tracking number. After being assigned a tracking number, it should immediately be assigned to a committee. In Kenya for example, which is a British influenced legislature that utilizes the Westminster systems, the consideration made by the committee occurs between the second and the third readings.

Second reading

The second stage is called the second reading. This step of the lawmaking process is the stage of the legislative process where the draft of the bill is read for the second time. In the Kenyan legislature which is a Westminster system, a vote is taken in the general outlines of the bill. This happens before the bill is forwarded to the committee to which it has been assigned.

Third reading

The third stage of the lawmaking process is referred to as the third reading. It is the stage in the legislative process in which the bill is read. All the amendments made have to be included in the reading. The bill is then given final approval by the legislative body. According to the Westminster system which governs the procedures for making law by the legislature, the third reading is done after the bill has been amended by members of the committee to which it was designated.

Presidential assent

The fourth stage in the process of legislation is the presidential assent that is granted by the head of the Executive arm of the government. It is a formal procedure that completes the legislative process. A formal assent is when consent is given to an Act of Parliament by the President who is the Head of the Executive.
Finally, the stage of commencement is also a part of the legislative process. This is the notification given on the date when an Act of Parliament will become effective. This notice is given through a legal notice by the Minister who is in charge of the matters that are concerned with that specific Act of Parliament.